A 2007 study in San Francisco analyzes the market share of several categories to find out what percentage is held by chains or locally-owned businesses. It then calculates that if 10% of spending were shifted from chains to locals it would increase economic output by almost $192 million, create almost 1,300 new jobs, provide almost $72 Million in new income for workers, and create over $15 Million in additional retail activity.
From the study's conclusion: "An immediate and easily attainable policy change would target a 10% increase in the local, independent share of public sector purchasing of goods and services. As volume purchasers, the City of San Francisco and the various public institutions in the city can lead the way. Public officials should, of course, actively seek local bidders and provide
assistance with the procurement process. But a substantial impact may also be achieved by conscientiously seeking local providers for more routine, no-bid purchases."